Access control has applications in the fields of physical security (for access to buildings and machines, etc.) and also IT security (management of identities and clearance levels of logged-on users). In the area of physical security, SPIE offers a wide range of solutions such as proximity access card readers, application readers, code keypads, biometric readers, tripod turnstiles, access gates, interphones and videophones. In the IT sector, SPIE Communications specialises in access confidentiality to prevent identity theft and the theft of critical data.
The Rio Conference was an occasion to adopt a programme of action for the 21st century, called Agenda 21, which lists some 2,500 recommendations concerning the concrete implementation of the principles of the declaration. It takes into account the issues linked to health, housing, air pollution, the conservation and management of the oceans, forests and mountains, desertification, water resources management and sanitation, agricultural management and waste management.
Today, the Agenda 21 programme remains the reference for the implementation of sustainability at regional and local authorities levels.
The aim of automation and industrial computing services (including automatic control systems, instrumentation, power distribution, IT networks and process control) is to ensure the performance and optimisation of mechanical tasks, generally within an industrial process. These services call for skills in the fields of electricity, electronics, mechanical engineering, computing, hydraulics, pneumatics, control and supervision. SPIE offers all the industrial skills required for the design, implementation, maintenance and optimisation of these services, along with special expertise in expert systems ranging from supervision to the complete integration of industrial computing and management computing.